Diagnosis of male infertility

Semen Analysis

It is necessary to carry out the examination on the first couple’s visit. At present, poor quality semen is the cause of about 90 % of infertility in couples that come to Sanatorium Helios.

It is necessary to carry out the examination on the first couple’s visit.

The semen analysis assesses parameters, which influences the sperm’s ability to fertilize the egg. It is an overall assessment of semen quality that also includes a microscopic examination.

The semen analysis examines sperm count (the number of sperm per ml of ejaculate), sperm motility (the proportion of motile/immotile sperms and the nature of their motility) and sperm morphology (the portion of sperm with a normal/abnormal shape). Furthermore, the volume of ejaculate, its acidity, alkalinity, viscosity, clustering and the presence of other sperm cells (round cells) is assessed.

In exceptional cases, for example if there are only immotile sperms in the specimen, the sperm vitalitycan be assessed (the portion of alive sperm).

Violation of any of the above semen analysis parameters can adversely affect male fertility.

What are normal values of semen analysis?

The commonly accepted standard for defining the normal semen analysis are when ejaculate complies with following standards (WHO, 2010):

  • Standard Tests Volume: minimum 1.5 ml.
  • pH: 7.2.-8.4.
  • Sperm Concentration:  minimum 15 million/ml.
  • Sperm Motility: minimum  40 % of moving sperms
  • Sperm Progressive Motility:  (WHO A+B class) minimum 32 %
  • Sperm Morphology: minimum 4 % of normal forms*

*such strict morphology was adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2010 and its legitimacy has been proven by extended experience in the treatment of reproductive disorders by the Australian Genea.

The semen analysis can also show:

  • Normospermia – production of spermatozoa is normal in number and motility
  • Oligospermia – low sperm count
  • Asthenospermia – reduced sperm motility or worsened sperm motility
  • Theratospermia – reduced sperm count with a normal shape
  • Necrospermia – the spermatozoa of the semen are dead
  • Azoospermia – zero sperm count in the ejaculate

Men with impaired semen values are far less likely to have children than men with normal semen values, however, in any case it does not mean that they cannot have a child.

Semen Microbiology Test

Semen microbiology of ejaculate can detect inflammation which may have negative effect on semen functional quality.

Genetic Test

This examination requires a blood test. It helps to identify a genetic problem and determine the likelihood of passing the condition on to the children.

Imunology  Test

The test can be carried out from the blood of either partner, the ejeculate or the cervical mucus. The presence of anti sperm antibodies is detected as they can be produced by the male or female immune system and can be the cause of the couple’s infertility.

Sperm Function Test

Further sperm function tests are carried out at an andrology laboratory and it helps the doctor to choose a suitable method of assisted reproduction for the particular couple.

Recommendations for Semen Collection

Before testing, a period of 2 to 5 days of abstinence from ejaculation is recommended.  The specimen is collected into a sterile container only. You will get one from your physician or you can pick it up from our andrology  laboratory. The sample must be rapidly transported within 1 hour. It is necessary to ensure that the specimen’s temperature does not drop below 20 °C.

Please call +420 549 523 257 to SCHEDULE an appointment for a semen analysis  or  mail to andrologie@sanatoriumhelios.cz.

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